Most commonly the vehicle which is operated in electrical energy called as electrical vehicle whether it comes from solar energy or from battery supply.Electrical Vehicle is the only motorized engine means for transport available ,which leaves no exhaust fumes during its operation and hardly creates no noise at all.The Electric Vehicle is superior to both gasoline engine and diesel engine whet it comes to emission of Nitrogen Oxide(NOx),Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbons(HC) for particularly green house gas and Carbon Dioxide(CO2)
It also very economical and efficient than any combustion engine vehicle.So introduction of electrical vehicle will reduce pollution not only in load level but also in global level.
The major assemblies of a basic electrical vehicle are-
- Body(Light Weight)
- Drive Motors
- Propulsion Battery or Solar Panel for Solar Electrical Vehicle
- Auxiliaries and Other Instruments
The Electric vehicle has a DC series motor with shunt limiting winding in place of the IC engine.The rest of the transmission system is as in the conventional internal combustion vehicle.
The speed of the motor is varied by varying the voltage across the motor smoothly and sleeplessly through the accelerator controlled reference signal.The vehicle has a fuse in the circuit to protect it in a case of any disturbance in electrical voltage and it consists of a current limiter to restrict the current that means allow only required amount of current .A thermistor is there to sense whether the motor winding temperature exceeds normal value or not if it exceeds then it has an important role to control it and maintaining it in a normal stage.Some of control systems are having Microprocessor to control speed ,for better efficiency,for logic and sequencing operations,for indicating state of charge,amount of charge ,self diagnostics automatically.Computerized programming also used in some control system to control it automatically.
It has a Semiconductor Device Technology (SDT) which consist of high power transistors and high power gate turn off transistors make to use of the AC drives in battery vehicles realistic possibility.
Its working is very simple.When we start our vehicle the switch connects the total system to the battery and then Motor are connected to battery.After this motors are start their working and controlled by the Integrated Control System present within the vehicle.Then we can able to run our vehicle and control it our self.
- Generally the Electric Vehicles having less power and minimum speed but it can be designed for high power and speed but then its cost will be more.
- Some electrical vehicle’s efficiency reduced in cold and poor weather.
- Their range are low.
- Lesser Strong body.
- Light weight,so difficulty occurs in controlling the vehicle in high speed